7 facts about fully qualified domain that make you smarter

A fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) sometimes also referred to as an absolute domain name, is a domain or portion of an Internet Uniform Resource Locator (URL) like http://www.lowstuff.com/fully-qualified-domain-name-facts it fully identifies the server program that an Internet request is addressed to. It specifies all domain levels, includes the second-level domain name like lowstuff.com and any other levels www.lowstuff.com. The prefix “http://” added to the fully-qualified domain name completes the URL.

Here quickly are 7 facts about fully qualified domain name you shouldn’t forget as a Network Administrator, Web Master or an internet geek.

  1. Every network device has a fully qualified domain name
  2. A fully qualified domain name always end with a period or dot (.)
  3. A fully qualified domain name have 3 parts: Host, domain, top level domain (.tld)
  4. Elements that make up a fully qualified domain name are separated by a period or dot (.)
  5. Fully qualified domain name (FQDN) specifies exact location of nodes in the tree hierarchy of the Domain Name System (DNS)
  6. Fully qualified domain name (FQDN) is always unique and unambiguous
  7. DNS maintains the information about the mapping between hosts’ Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDNs) and IP addresses assigned to the hosts

1. Every network device has a fully qualified domain name:

Computers are also named to distinguish one machine from another and to allow for proper network communication.

Computers need unique addresses to talk to each other. The hostname is usually a simple string of alphanumeric characters and hyphen, the hostname means a Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) that absolutely and uniquely identifies every computer hooked up to the Internet via the Domain name server (DNS) naming hierarchy.

Actually computers communicate on a network using a set of numbers with a protocol called TCP/IP which follows a specific set of rules to assure its uniqueness and validity i.e. used for most router IP.

2. A fully qualified domain name always end with a period or dot (.)

Technically a domain is not considered fully qualified without a trailing dot, for example browsers are smart enough to put a dot at end of URL when you type an URL while requesting for pages from a server resources. Try this. Type www.lowstuff.com. The browser will still open the page as well as when you type www.lowstuff.com with a trailing dot (.) period

Name servers must be FQDNs and typically use the naming convention “ns1.example.com.” and “ns2.example.com.” So when you look up the name server on you DNS dashboard you see the trailing dot (.)

3. A fully qualified domain name have 3 parts: Host, domain, top level domain (.tld)

Your hostname is the name of your computer. Your fully qualified domain name is your hostname plus the domain

your company i.e. name of server your company uses, often ending in .local.

So if the name of your computer is goodstuff, and your company’s domain is amber.localhost, your computer’s fully qualified domain name (FQDN) is goodstuff.amber.localhost.:

  • Hostname: goodstuff
  • Domain: amber.localhost
  • FQDN: goodstuff.amber.localhost

In the case of a domain like contoso.local I did not use an “external” internet domain name. This name doesn’t have to be the only way that you address the server.
If you make it available by its IP address you can use Domain name server or that IP address to allow external users to access it.

4. Elements that make up a fully qualified domain name are separated by a period or dot (.)

A FQDN has hostname, domain and top level domain for example for mail, ftp, store, support, etc. we would state the FQDN as  mail.lowstuff.com. ftp.lowstuff.com. store.lowstuff.com.

All separated by dot (.)

5. Fully qualified domain name (FQDN) specifies exact location of nodes in the tree hierarchy of the Domain Name System (DNS)

It pinpoints the exact location in the tree hierarchy of the Domain Name System (DNS). Thus, it specifies all domain levels, including the top-level domain and the root zone.

Usually you’d have a private DNS that has your .local domain setup in it and a separate DNS server for the public where your .com lives. You don’t want to put your .local domain on a public DNS server because someone will have a way to get a list of all your hosts and it exposes your network to attack.

A FQDN always starts with a host name and continues all the way up to the top-level domain name, Essentially any activity that transfers info across a network involves the Domain Name System -DNS. If you’re connecting to a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server or an email server, you will need to know its Fully Qualified Domain Name or IP.

If you are using only the hostname (without the domain information) to connect to a server, the application you’re using may not be able to resolve the hostname. Also, if you are trying to connect to a remote host that is not local to your Internet service provider (ISP), you will probably have to use the FQDN.

6.  Fully qualified domain name (FQDN) is always unique and unambiguous

The FQDN always instructs the person or software interpreting the name to start at the root and then follow the sequence of domain labels from right to left, going top to bottom within the tree.

To name any node in the DNS name hierarchy. We simply start at the root node and follow the sequence of subdomains down to the node in question, listing each level’s labels separated by a dot. When we do this, we get single name that uniquely identifies a particular device.

Sometimes the partially qualified domain name is used to refer to network devices

There are also some situations in which we may refer to a device using an incomplete name specification. This is called a partially-qualified domain name (PQDN), which means that the name only partially specifies the location of the device.

Thus, one can only use a PQDN within the context of a particular parent domain, whose absolute domain name is known. We can then find the FQDN of a partially-specified domain name by appending the partial name to the absolute name of the parent domain.

7. DNS maintains the information about the mapping between hosts’ Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDNs) and IP addresses assigned to the hosts

Whenever the DNS software sees a FQDN it will look up the corresponding IP address from the domain name server.

How do I find the fully qualified domain name of my computer?

To find the FQDN

  1. On the Windows Taskbar, click Start > Programs > Administrative Tools > Active Directory Domains and Trusts.
  2. In the left pane of the Active Directory Domains and Trusts dialog box, look under Active Directory Domains and Trusts. The FQDN for the computer or computers is listed.

How do you look up a Fully Qualified Domain Name?

Looking up the FQDN of your computer or server is simple. Just follow the instructions for your operating system below. If your machine does not provide the FQDN, it is not connected to a domain.

Windows 10. Within the taskbar’s “Search Windows” box, type “control panel” and select “system and security.” Next, select “system” and the FQDN is listed next to the Full Computer Name label.

Mac OS. Open terminal, and enter “hostname -f” into the prompt. Terminal will return the FQDN.

Linux. Open terminal and enter “hostname -A” into the prompt. The “A” is case sensitive. Terminal will return the FQDN.

Once you know your Fully Qualified Domain Name, you can make your device available online through the DNS.

Windows 7

  • Begin in the Start menu
  • Right-click Computer
  • Click Properties
  • The fully qualified domain name appears next to Full computer name

Windows 8/8.1

  • Begin in the home screen
  • Type Computer
  • Right-click Computer from the search results
  • Click Properties on the bottom of the screen
  • The fully qualified domain name appears next to Full computer name

Windows 10

  • Begin on the desktop.
  • Type Control Panel in the “Search Windows” box in the taskbar.
  • Click on System and Security.
  • Click on System.
  • The fully qualified domain name applers next to Full Computer Name.

Mac OS

The fully qualified computer name can be determined by combining the Computer Account with the Active Directory Domain from the procedure below.

  • Open a terminal prompt
  • Enter dsconfigad -show
  • If you are connected to a domain, you will see a printout containing Computer Account and Active Directory Domain
  • If you are not connected to a domain, nothing will display and your machine does not have a fully qualified domain name


  • Start on the desktop.
  • Open a Terminal.
  • Type hostname -A (The “A” must be captialized).
  • The Fully Qualified Domain Name will be given.

Sources: Sematec  , labtestproject.com

Amazing, 5 website registrar offer domain name for free

You want to put your business online? Then go to a website registrar, some even give domain name for free depending on domain name availability.

You just desire a perfect domain name but you don’t want to spend a dime to place your business information online for people to know more about your product and services.

You must understand that, not all domains can be registered for free. A number of domains are considered “Special” and can only be purchased. Their price varies and pricing are usually displayed during the availability check.

There are free domain name registrars that allow you to register quit a handful of domain name TLDs (top level domains) without paying.

You just enter your desired domain name, choose one or more extensions and click the “Check or search” button to see if they are available. In a few seconds you will have the results. You can register your free domain names and you can host your website with it for as long as you want.

A domain name by definition is the online address that people can type on a browser to open your website.

1.  Reenom:

is one of the world’s first free domain providers. Their mission is to bring people online and help them develop their digital economy.

With Renom you may register free domains dependent on domain name availability, like any other domain name it can be used for your website, your blog, email account and more! You can choose to run your free domain with URL Forwarding, free Freenom DNS Service or your own DNS (Name servers). You can register .tk free domain.

Domain extensions currently available for free registration: .tk, .ml, .cf, .ga

TLD available     .TK / .ML / .GA / .CF / .GQ             .TK / .ML / .GA / .CF / .GQ

Registration and renewal is from 1 to 12 months for .tk free domain

Paid and Special Domains.

Usually for more domain name extensions, you may have to buy the domain.

The process of registering a domain involves registering the name you want with an organisation called ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) through a domain name registrar. For example, if you choose a name like “example.com”, you will have to go to a registrar, pay a registration fee that costs around US$10 to US$35 for that name.

What is ICANN and what does it do?

ICANN  (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) is an internationally organized, non-profit corporation that is saddled with the responsibility for assigning Internet Protocol (IP) address space allocation, protocol identifier assignment, generic (gTLD) and country code (ccTLD) Top-Level Domain name system management, and root.

2.  Free Hostingeu:

Freehostingeu offer free domain name for every hosting plan purchased.

They have “BEST” and a “PRO” hosting packages in addition to a free domain registration of one top level domain like .com, .net, .org, .info, .biz, .us, .co.uk, .eu.

The registered name belongs absolutely to the owner of the hosting plan. And he can move away with the domain if he decides to move.

Free HostingEu

3. Biz.nf

They guys give you free domains with .co.nf extension. These domain extensions are included with both free hosting, unlimited web hosting Personal and Business plans.

However, if you want a top level domains extensions like  .com, .net, .org, .biz, .info, .us, .co.uk, and .eu , you can only get by buying a hosting plan.


4.  1and1 hosting :

1 and 1 hosting give away one free domain per each web hosting packages purchased. One may purchase Unlimited, Unlimited Plus and Unlimited Pro plans.

The free domain name can act as the centerpiece of your website, and it is important to try to use your company’s name or close to it when choosing a domain name. Make sure it corresponds to your company and reflects the content of your website.

5. Name.com

They off free Domain Name , free Whois Privacy, free Email Forwarding and free One-Page Website Builder per registration. Name.com is an ICANN-accredited domain name registrar and SSL certificates.


Complete list of festivals with examples of cultures in Nigeria

What is Culture:

Culture is simply an established behavior that a group of people is identified with. This unique pattern of doing things is usual passed to next generation formally or informally by observation; many years of observing others, for example when children observe parents or relatives, writings, religion, music, clothes, food or values purposely to understand what behavioral patterns he or she is looking at. Then they begin asking why mum or dad is acting this way or that until they begin inquiring how they could emulate what they have seen.

Difference between culture and tradition

Tradition is a specified way society act as it relates to daily routine of life for example how marriage is conducted, how farming is carried out, how people worship God, the way food is prepared, how younger ones address elders, etc. while culture is a blend of all traditions that defines a group of people, it is the way of life that distinguish different groups of people from one another.

What are the elements of culture?

Language, symbols, values, and norms are among the important elements of culture. The elements of a culture are those components that make up a culture; just like rainfall, temperature, humidity, pressure, etc are components of weather so our religious beliefs, customs and traditions, art, as also history, taken together can be considered as the cultural elements. They give a meaning to the concept of culture. All these are important for our overall development as individuals.

Characteristics of culture

The features or qualities belonging to a particular culture are the characteristics used to identify and differentiate it from another culture.

Here are 5 essential characteristics of culture:

  1. Culture is learned: The individuals having a culture share certain essences which shape their lives. The heritage is transmitted to future generations by teaching the children about the culture, however there are some ideals that cannot be taught formally but is learned by the children by observation, they learn the language, the literature, the religion and the art forms.
  2. Culture is shared: Culture is synonymous to group of people the language, the literature, and the art forms are used to identify a culture. People of a certain culture usually inhabit the same part of the world or region.

As you move from one geographic environment to another, you will notice significant changes to the way of life of the people.

  1. Culture has unique symbols: A symbol is something that stands for something else. Symbols vary cross-culturally. These symbols only make sense to people within the culture, like money, food, Language. Language is the most important symbolic component of culture. Symbols is an important characteristics of culture because a culture’s language is the primary mode of transmitting culture from person to person.
  1.  Culture is Dynamic (blend): Despite the shared nature of culture, that doesn’t mean that culture is homogenous. One culture interacts with other cultures and form what is referred to as cultural blend or cultural mix. This characteristic is usually noticeable at state or country border locations.

One cultures interact with other cultures and are in constant contact with other culture in exchange ideas and symbols.

  1. Culture can go extinct: When culture interacts, some elements of one culture is adapted by another culture. Sometimes on extreme adaptation, one culture could be completely swallowed up by another culture. Not all adaptation is good, and not all cultural practices or elements are adaptive.

There is no one culture that is supreme; neither should one culture see the other as inferior. Custodians of culture that identifies undesirable elements should be encouraged to adapt desirable elements from other cultures.

 Some examples of cultures in Nigeria

It’s easier to identify cultures in Nigeria using language spoken by the different cultures or by Nigeria‘s multiple ethnic groups. The country has 527 languages, seven of them are extinct, she also has over 1150 dialects and ethnic groups. The six largest ethnic groups are the Hausa and Fulani in the north, the Igbo in the southeast, and the Yoruba predominate in the southwest, Efik – Ibibio, and Ijaw of the southsouth.


·       Efik-Ibibio Culture

·       Ijaw Culture

·       Yoruba Culture

·       Igbo Culture

·       Housa-Fulani Culture

Here is a complete list of cultural festivals in Nigeria

  1. Lagos Theatre Festival February 28th – 6th March   Lagos    Lagos State (British Council)
  2. Ose-Meji February    Ibadan East    Oyo State
  3. Lokkaari Lera (Circumcision) Feb / May    Bali    Taraba State
  4. Argungun Fishing Festival Feb / March    Argungun    Kebbi State
  5. Bade Fishing Festival Feb / March    Bade    Yobe State
  6. Durbar Maccina March-April    Maccina    Yobe State
  7. Ikeji Festival March-April    Arondizuogu    Imo
  8. Njuwa Fishing Festival March-May    Buatiye, Bata    Adamawa
  9. Gombe State Festival Of Arts And Culture (Gofest) April    All LGAs    Gombe State
  10. Zuru Wmir.Uhola Festival And Giri Cultural Show April    Zuru    Kebbi State
  11. Ovia Osese Festival April    Egori    Kogi State
  12. Nigerian Drum Festival April    Abeokuta    Ogun State
  13. Patigi Regatta April/May    Patigi    Kwara State
  14. Kaduna State Festival Arts And Culture – Kadfest 27th – 29th May    All LGAs    Kaduna State
  15. Owuya Festival May    Ogori Magongo    Kogi State
  16. Lagos Carnival May    All LGAs    Lagos State
  17. Amassoma Seigbin Last Week Of May    Amassoma (Southern Ijaw)    Bayelsa State
  18. Egungun May/June    Ibadan    Oyo State
  19. Odun Oba Festival July    Ondo Town    Ondo State
  20. Eid-El-Fitir Sallah Celebration (Durbar) 18th August    All LGAs    Kano State
  21. Osun-Osogbo Festival 22nd – 27th August    Osogbo    Osun State
  22. Durbar Festival August        Jigawa State
  23. Sango Festival August    Oyo Town    Oyo State
  24. Badagry Festival August    Badagry    Lagos State
  25. Odi Oge Last Week Of August    Odi Kolokumor/Opokumo    Bayelsa State
  1. Leboku Festival August – September    Yakurr    Cross River State
  2. Iri Ji Festival August – September    Abia, Anambra, Enugu, Imo    All Eastern States
  3. Ibeku Ekpe Festival September    Umuahia South/North    Abia State
  4. Ojiji Festival September    Abakaliki    Ebonyi State
  5. Masquerade Festival (During Annual Festivals) September-December    Abakaliki    Ebonyi
  6. Igodo Festival September    Owo    Ondo State
  7. Mmanwu (Masquerade) Festival September – December    All LGAs    Enugu State
  8. Olojo Festival 22nd – 27th October    Ife    Osun State
  9. Eid-El-Kabir Sallah Celebration (Sallah) 25th October    All LGAs    Kano State
  10. Sharo Shadi Festival Id-El-Kabir    Fulanis    Nothern States
  11. Felabration Music Festival October    Ikeja    Lagos State
  12. Delta Tourism Expo October        Delta State
  13. National Festival Of Arts (Nafest) 3rd – 9th October    As Decided     Ncac
  14. Ojude Oba Festival 10th – 15th November    Ijebu Ode    Ogun State
  15. Wrestling (Kokawa) November    Kokowa    Jigawa State
  16. Oya-Ore Salt Festival November    Keana    Nasarawa
  17. Uchoro Usuk Udia Annang (Annang Yam Festival) November    Annang    Akwa Ibom
  18. Delta Festival Of Regatta November     Riverine Areas    Delta State
  19. Abuja Carnival, Abuja November    Fct    Fct
  20. African Arts And Craft Expo November    Fct    Fct (Ncac)
  21. Christmas Choir Carol (9,999) Late November – Early December    All LGAs    Akwa Ibom
  22. Ahiajoku Last Friday Of November    Owerri Municipal    Imo State
  23. Ogani Fishing And Cultural Festival November – December    Idah, Ankpa    Nasarawa
  24. Calabar Christmas Festival/Carnival 30th November – 30th December    Calabar    Cross River
  25. Igue Festival    1st – 14th December    Benin    Edo State
  26. Riye Gateway Musical Festival 16th – 18thdecember    Abeokuta    Ogun State
  27. Lekki Sun Splash 25th – 26th December    Lekki    Lagos State
  28. Ogwashi-Uku Carnival 25th – 26th December    Ogwashi-Uku    Delta State
  29. Opobo International Boat Regatta 24th Dec – 5th Jan    Opobo    Rivers State
  30. Kwagh-Hir Masquerade Festival 26th Dec – 1st January    Tiv Land     Benue State
  31. Pissi Tangle Cultural Festival Last Saturday In December    All LGAs    Gombe State
  32. Ibomfest December        Akwa Ibom
  33. Ofala Festival December    Onitsha    Anambra State
  34. Ekpe Masquerade Festival December    Efik, Abriba    Cross River State
  35. Ozuruimo Festival December    Owerri Municipal    Imo State
  36. Kwara State Festival Of Art And Craft Expo (Kwafest) December    All LGAs    Kwara State
  37. Ijakadi Offa December    Offa    Kwara State
  38. Seafood Fiesta December    Island    Lagos State
  39. Carniriv December    Port Harcourt    Rivers State
  40. Aji Festival December Ending    Itigidi    Cross River State
  41. Igbo Uturu Cultural Festival December-January    Isuikwuato    Abia State
  42. Jibu Festival December-January    Gashaka    Taraba
  43. Durbar Festival Celebrated At The End Of Ramadan/Ed-Kabir    All LGAs    Kaduna State
  44. Eyo Festival Ceremonies    All LGAs    Lagos State
  45. Nzem Berom Festival Berom Plateau State


Festivals in Nigeria


Image credit: Folami Razaq-africaclockwise.wordpress.com


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